Last update 21 Mar 2024

PRMT5

Protein arginine methyltransferase 5

Basic Info

Synonyms
72 kDa ICln-binding protein, Histone-arginine N-methyltransferase PRMT5, HRMT1L5
+ [13]
Introduction
Arginine methyltransferase that can both catalyze the formation of omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA), with a preference for the formation of MMA (PubMed:10531356, PubMed:11152681, PubMed:11747828, PubMed:12411503, PubMed:15737618, PubMed:17709427, PubMed:20159986, PubMed:20810653, PubMed:21258366, PubMed:21917714, PubMed:22269951, PubMed:21081503). Specifically mediates the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins Sm D1 (SNRPD1) and Sm D3 (SNRPD3); such methylation being required for the assembly and biogenesis of snRNP core particles (PubMed:12411503, PubMed:11747828, PubMed:17709427). Methylates SUPT5H and may regulate its transcriptional elongation properties (PubMed:12718890). May methylate the N-terminal region of MBD2 (PubMed:16428440). Mono- and dimethylates arginine residues of myelin basic protein (MBP) in vitro. May play a role in cytokine-activated transduction pathways. Negatively regulates cyclin E1 promoter activity and cellular proliferation. Methylates histone H2A and H4 'Arg-3' during germ cell development (By similarity). Methylates histone H3 'Arg-8', which may repress transcription (By similarity). Methylates the Piwi proteins (PIWIL1, PIWIL2 and PIWIL4), methylation of Piwi proteins being required for the interaction with Tudor domain-containing proteins and subsequent localization to the meiotic nuage (By similarity). Methylates RPS10. Attenuates EGF signaling through the MAPK1/MAPK3 pathway acting at 2 levels. First, monomethylates EGFR; this enhances EGFR 'Tyr-1197' phosphorylation and PTPN6 recruitment, eventually leading to reduced SOS1 phosphorylation (PubMed:21917714, PubMed:21258366). Second, methylates RAF1 and probably BRAF, hence destabilizing these 2 signaling proteins and reducing their catalytic activity (PubMed:21917714). Required for induction of E-selectin and VCAM-1, on the endothelial cells surface at sites of inflammation. Methylates HOXA9 (PubMed:22269951). Methylates and regulates SRGAP2 which is involved in cell migration and differentiation (PubMed:20810653). Acts as a transcriptional corepressor in CRY1-mediated repression of the core circadian component PER1 by regulating the H4R3 dimethylation at the PER1 promoter (By similarity). Methylates GM130/GOLGA2, regulating Golgi ribbon formation (PubMed:20421892). Methylates H4R3 in genes involved in glioblastomagenesis in a CHTOP- and/or TET1-dependent manner (PubMed:25284789). Symmetrically methylates POLR2A, a modification that allows the recruitment to POLR2A of proteins including SMN1/SMN2 and SETX. This is required for resolving RNA-DNA hybrids created by RNA polymerase II, that form R-loop in transcription terminal regions, an important step in proper transcription termination (PubMed:26700805). Along with LYAR, binds the promoter of gamma-globin HBG1/HBG2 and represses its expression (PubMed:25092918). Symmetrically methylates NCL (PubMed:21081503). Methylates p53/TP53; methylation might possibly affect p53/TP53 target gene specificity (PubMed:19011621). Involved in spliceosome maturation and mRNA splicing in prophase I spermatocytes through the catalysis of the symmetrical arginine dimethylation of SNRPB (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated protein) and the interaction with tudor domain-containing protein TDRD6 (By similarity).

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