Last update 21 Mar 2024

MLL1

lysine methyltransferase 2A

Basic Info

Synonyms
ALL-1, ALL1, C-terminal cleavage product of 180 kDa
+ [26]
Introduction
Histone methyltransferase that plays an essential role in early development and hematopoiesis (PubMed:15960975, PubMed:12453419, PubMed:15960975, PubMed:19556245, PubMed:19187761, PubMed:20677832, PubMed:21220120, PubMed:26886794). Catalytic subunit of the MLL1/MLL complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates both methylation of 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me) complex and acetylation of 'Lys-16' of histone H4 (H4K16ac) (PubMed:15960975, PubMed:12453419, PubMed:15960975, PubMed:19556245, PubMed:24235145, PubMed:19187761, PubMed:20677832, PubMed:21220120, PubMed:26886794). Catalyzes methyl group transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the epsilon-amino group of 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4) via a non-processive mechanism. Part of chromatin remodeling machinery predominantly forms H3K4me1 and H3K4me2 methylation marks at active chromatin sites where transcription and DNA repair take place (PubMed:25561738, PubMed:15960975, PubMed:12453419, PubMed:15960975, PubMed:19556245, PubMed:19187761, PubMed:20677832, PubMed:21220120, PubMed:26886794). Has weak methyltransferase activity by itself, and requires other component of the MLL1/MLL complex to obtain full methyltransferase activity (PubMed:19187761, PubMed:26886794). Has no activity toward histone H3 phosphorylated on 'Thr-3', less activity toward H3 dimethylated on 'Arg-8' or 'Lys-9', while it has higher activity toward H3 acetylated on 'Lys-9' (PubMed:19187761). Binds to unmethylated CpG elements in the promoter of target genes and helps maintain them in the nonmethylated state (PubMed:20010842). Required for transcriptional activation of HOXA9 (PubMed:12453419, PubMed:20677832, PubMed:20010842). Promotes PPP1R15A-induced apoptosis (PubMed:10490642). Plays a critical role in the control of circadian gene expression and is essential for the transcriptional activation mediated by the CLOCK-BMAL1 heterodimer (By similarity). Establishes a permissive chromatin state for circadian transcription by mediating a rhythmic methylation of 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me) and this histone modification directs the circadian acetylation at H3K9 and H3K14 allowing the recruitment of CLOCK-BMAL1 to chromatin (By similarity). Also has auto-methylation activity on Cys-3882 in absence of histone H3 substrate (PubMed:24235145).

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