Last update 21 Mar 2024


Pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2

Basic Info

CTHBP, Cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein, OIP-3
+ [17]
Isoform specifically expressed during embryogenesis that has low pyruvate kinase activity by itself and requires allosteric activation by D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) for pyruvate kinase activity (PubMed:18337823, PubMed:20847263). In addition to its pyruvate kinase activity in the cytoplasm, also acts as a regulator of transcription in the nucleus by acting as a protein kinase (PubMed:18191611, PubMed:21620138, PubMed:22056988, PubMed:22306293, PubMed:22901803, PubMed:24120661). Translocates into the nucleus in response to various signals, such as EGF receptor activation, and homodimerizes, leading to its conversion into a protein threonine- and tyrosine-protein kinase (PubMed:22056988, PubMed:22306293, PubMed:22901803, PubMed:24120661, PubMed:26787900). Catalyzes phosphorylation of STAT3 at 'Tyr-705' and histone H3 at 'Thr-11' (H3T11ph), leading to activate transcription (PubMed:22306293, PubMed:22901803, PubMed:24120661). Its ability to activate transcription plays a role in cancer cells by promoting cell proliferation and promote tumorigenesis (PubMed:18337823, PubMed:22901803, PubMed:26787900). Promotes the expression of the immune checkpoint protein CD274 in BMAL1-deficient macrophages (By similarity). May also act as a translation regulator for a subset of mRNAs, independently of its pyruvate kinase activity: associates with subpools of endoplasmic reticulum-associated ribosomes, binds directly to the mRNAs translated at the endoplasmic reticulum and promotes translation of these endoplasmic reticulum-destined mRNAs (By similarity). Plays a role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells (PubMed:17308100). Catalyzes the final rate-limiting step of glycolysis by mediating the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP (PubMed:20847263, PubMed:15996096, PubMed:1854723). The ratio between the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production (PubMed:20847263, PubMed:15996096, PubMed:1854723). The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival (PubMed:20847263, PubMed:15996096, PubMed:1854723). Pyruvate kinase isoform expressed in adult tissues, which replaces isoform M2 after birth (PubMed:18337823). In contrast to isoform M2, has high pyruvate kinase activity by itself and does not require allosteric activation by D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) for activity (PubMed:20847263).


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