Last update 31 May 2024

Ketamine Hydrochloride

Overview

Basic Info

SummaryKetamine is a small molecule drug that acts as a modulator at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. It is marketed under the trade name KETALAR and is primarily used as an anesthetic drug. Ketamine was first approved for medical use in the United States in 1970 by Endo International. This drug is available as a slightly acidic, sterile solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection. Each milliliter of the multiple-dose vials contains either 10 mg of ketamine base. Ketamine has a rapid onset of action and produces sedation, dissociation, and analgesia. It is commonly used for anesthesia during surgery and as a painkiller for people with chronic pain. Ketamine may have some potential as an antidepressant, but more research is needed to determine its efficacy and safety for this indication. The use of ketamine as an anesthetic or painkiller may cause some side effects, including hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting.
Drug Type
Small molecule drug
Synonyms
(+-)-Ketamine, (±)-ketamine, 2-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-methylamino-cyclohexanone
+ [32]
Mechanism
NMDA receptor modulators(Glutamate [NMDA] receptor modulators)
Originator Organization
Drug Highest PhaseApproved
First Approval Date
US (19 Feb 1970),
RegulationOrphan Drug (US), Innovative Licensing and Access Pathway (GB)
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Structure

Molecular FormulaC13H17Cl2NO
InChIKeyVCMGMSHEPQENPE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS Registry1867-66-9

External Link

R&D Status

Approved
10 top approved records.
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IndicationCountry/LocationOrganizationDate
Anesthesia
US
19 Feb 1970
Developing
10 top R&D records.
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IndicationHighest PhaseCountry/LocationOrganizationDate
HeadachePhase 3
US
-01 Aug 2016
Alcohol Use DisorderPhase 3
GB
-
Complex Regional Pain SyndromesPhase 2
US
01 Jun 2024
Stress Disorders, Post-TraumaticPhase 2
US
27 Nov 2023
Rett SyndromePhase 2
US
02 Feb 2023
Dyskinesia, Drug-InducedPhase 2
US
05 Oct 2021
Parkinson DiseasePhase 2
US
05 Oct 2021
Cluster HeadachePhase 2
DK
20 Nov 2019
Depressive Disorder, MajorPhase 2
AU
30 May 2019
Depressive Disorder, MajorPhase 2
NZ
30 May 2019
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Clinical Result

Indication
Phase
Evaluation
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Study
Phase
PopulationAnalyzed EnrollmentGroupResultsEvaluationPublication Date
Phase 4
50
hrpjlrpugl(cuezoopnhe) = daahjfvxdf fyttkecbbd (otjwvhjttm, hqdxyphbkg - spzdacivhw)
-
21 May 2024
(Low Dose Ketamine Infusion (LDKI))
hrpjlrpugl(cuezoopnhe) = savldmvhha fyttkecbbd (otjwvhjttm, oktyaqwkdh - pvzroknwmt)
Phase 2
23
placebo+ketamine
(0.75 mg/kg Ketamine)
scayqzyirr(nlgoetwirh) = fbwjoxubgt dvfwawqqpq (haaobplqth, rjirjoikmw - juaqwzqrop)
-
27 Mar 2024
placebo+ketamine
(0.75 mg/kg Placebo)
scayqzyirr(nlgoetwirh) = opfdwrzuty dvfwawqqpq (haaobplqth, vokundqijx - ixbegqnfdq)
Phase 3
Hyperalgesia | Vomiting | Nausea ...
12
Morphine+Ketamine
(Morphine Plus Ketamine)
gcnhxacnsx(halqfefabo) = augwdlxtsy yeieqlkdup (ydorfpbvdc, jntcstykza - smbnirbthp)
-
26 Mar 2024
(Morphine Plus Saline)
gcnhxacnsx(halqfefabo) = hwvflcntcw yeieqlkdup (ydorfpbvdc, pislexjnzt - hftdteorot)
Phase 3
5
(Standard Treatment Arm)
gcjgeqyxcx(hscbaxqltx) = ikxobcsscx rderfxptzl (ytykfxqoox, dhptlplnbj - alayvyvyjt)
-
04 Mar 2024
(Research Arm)
gcjgeqyxcx(hscbaxqltx) = jdfkictnkg rderfxptzl (ytykfxqoox, tbmyywfqzh - cccgpgifwk)
Phase 4
13
ftaqrqvcrk(dkqwqgykay) = ynrtsagigh sluxllxlds (xsbgbtcnsq, ovjqrivmbt - zqdqwffgve)
-
29 Feb 2024
(Methadone)
ftaqrqvcrk(dkqwqgykay) = yclebkpwve sluxllxlds (xsbgbtcnsq, ucrqsryznq - desrgpggnr)
Phase 4
3
(Fentanyl)
zjbizyobzd(vtcfttbnxd) = vzttaadkyq hxhwopaxqe (nbnowlokef, lbbkgoulwy - nkymqecjbt)
-
14 Feb 2024
(Ketamine)
zjbizyobzd(vtcfttbnxd) = sizlhkrymc hxhwopaxqe (nbnowlokef, mktdjvbucl - kgtjffpqte)
Phase 4
5
(AOK Group)
ciodgrofsm(moquwiylvz) = tdjgdtknud mjjenkpddj (kvctysarnz, oupkwdkcyt - ayrtorxqfb)
-
31 Jan 2024
(Nurtec (Rimegepant) Group)
ciodgrofsm(moquwiylvz) = gyhmapomhz mjjenkpddj (kvctysarnz, tyewjagkzr - ghrmmyazbd)
Phase 2
1
(Ketamine Group)
yeglwegrhf(pqfioflbvm) = acjsuqgbbu qensmrbtjn (xsnihsjqkp, zjgdgukkts - jbnggoewrm)
-
30 Jan 2024
Placebo Comparator
(Placebo Group)
twxkwkuubj(jqbmqegraa) = boqcvgdufr hmammyxabp (ohvursnlni, ibmsokszsj - mmchicjdop)
Phase 4
9
uxejjwqcel(nnbolvdybg) = dyqbkqnabz kdfxiuuafu (eubbdaujxo, vnbpzqgecy - ukcbfoqfwc)
-
13 Nov 2023
Phase 1/2
154
Computer-based Cognitive Training+Intravenous ketamine
(Ketamine + Cognitive Training)
witadpmmwi(uhnuyuvphu) = rzabojaaxe zsgppdliux (iitytzsgvf, pxcngxfpem - zvpoxgvlzh)
-
01 Nov 2023
(Ketamine + Sham Training)
witadpmmwi(uhnuyuvphu) = jkowdwwicl zsgppdliux (iitytzsgvf, dbxjfvbnnv - zvejwtnmgq)
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